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UK DM project: radioactivity test results

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Other data from miscellaneous sources

sample (source) analysis U conc.
(ppb)
Th conc.
(ppb)
K conc.
(ppm)
comments
by method
Adhesives tested for MUNU
St. Gotthard and NEMO
  GES J. Busto et al., NIM A 492 (2002) 35-42
[pdf from Science Direct]
Ag (powder) E GDMS < 0.1 < 0.1 0.5  
Al (commercial) E GDMS 150(20) 320(40)    
Al (high purity) E GDMS 2 - 15 1 - 8    
Al: Kryal UTH 0.2 (VAW) S NAA < 0.043 < 0.030    
Al (low a) E GDMS < 0.032 < 0.023   best < 3 ppt U, Th
Alumina (Coors Porcelain AD94: 94% purity) F GES 420(6)
240(4)
720(10)
440(10)
660(10)
30(2)
  from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Alumina (Coors Porcelain AD995: 99.5% purity) F GES 56(3)
38(2)
83(5)
160(10)
170(8)
7.4(12)
  from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Alumina (Westgo Al-300: 99.5% purity) F GES 69(2)
51(2)
99(4)
130(6)
170(6)
7.8(9)
  from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Alumina ceramic (R & W Products 909: 99.5% purity) F GES 12(2)
35(3)
9(2)
41(7)
37(5)
-        
7.5(16)
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Alumina ceramic (R & W Products: previous, unfired) F GES 8.3(10)
9.9(10)
86(7)
33(3)
5.4(10)
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th)
Alumina ceramic constituents:    (a) Al2O3 F GES 7.5(6)
13(1)
14(1)
53(3)
20(2)
-       
< 13
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
   (b) MgO F GES 31(8)
38(8)
60(20)
< 270
100(20)
-       
< 330
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
    (c) SiO2 F GES 47(6)
93(7)
160(16)
700(40)
300(20)
49(6)
31(5)
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
    (d) SiO2 (repeat of (c) with larger sample) F GES 30(2)
27(2)
37(4)
170(10)
180(10)
12(2)
25(2)
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Cu (high purity) E GDMS < 0.008 < 0.006    
Cu (low a) E GDMS < 0.004 < 0.003    
GaP E GDMS < 0.2 < 0.2 0.008 Rb < 0.3 ppb
In E GDMS < 0.03 < 0.03 < 0.001 Rb < 0.05 ppb
Mineral oil K TIMS < 10-3 < 10-3    
NaI(Tl) (Harshaw; polyscin) ? ? < 1 < 1 < 0.3  
Pb (`Doe Run') J a-count       0.8 cph cm-2
Pb (JM low a) J a-count       0.01 cph cm-2
Pb (low a) E GDMS < 0.016 < 0.014    
Pb (Missouri) E GDMS < 0.011 < 0.010    
Pb (modern) J a-count       1 - 10 cph cm-2
Pb (40 year old) J a-count       4.4 cph cm-2
Pb (50 year old) J a-count       1.2 cph cm-2
Pb (125 year old) J a-count       0.07 cph cm-2
Pb (440 year old, Spanish) J a-count       0.03 cph cm-2
Quartz (Mark Optics Ge-124, natural) F GES 18(1)
14.9(4)
31(1)
11(1)
2.6(3)
-       
< 9
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Sapphire (Union Carbide; Czochralski grown) F GES 1.0(2)
< 6.1
< 6.6
0.5(2)
< 8
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 212Pb (Th)
Si E GDMS < 3 < 2 < 0.01 Rb < 5 ppb
Si E GDMS 0.1 0.1 -        Rb 5 ppb
Silica (Heraeus-Amersil `Suprasil II') F GES < 2.4
5.7(8)
-       
1.6(9)
< 9
2.8(7)
< 27
 
 
from 214Pb (U), 228Ac (Th);
214Bi 609 keV (U), 212Pb (Th);
214Bi 1764 keV (U), 208Tl (Th)
Water (`city')
    (after resin column)
K TIMS 0.194
8.510-4
     
Water (Kamioka)
    (treated)
K TIMS 0.62
0.016
    recirculating system now < 1 ppt
ZnTe E GDMS < 0.08 < 0.07 0.004 Rb < 0.2 ppb
Analysts: Analysis methods:
E: Charles Evans GDMS: Glow Discharge Mass Spectroscopy
F: M. Fong et al. (JPL) GES: Gamma Emission Spectroscopy
J: Johnson Matthey NAA: Neutron Activation Analysis
K: W. R. Kelly (NBS) TIMS: Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry
S: Supplier

Notes:

NaI(Tl) data relates to ELEGANTS material (see Ejeri); `... U and Th contaminations are checked to be less than 1 ppb.', but no details of how; nor is it clear whether these checks refer to the NaI(Tl) or merely its Al can.

The Charles Evans data are from Ward, the JM from Ritala, and the VAW from Heusser.

I have converted the Fong et al. data from dpm kg-1 on the basis of U, Th chains in equilibrium; errors are my crude estimates of counting errors based on a stated absolute efficiency of 12% (at 835 keV; I have not attempted to correct this for actual g energies). Note, however, that Fong et al. describe the two SiO2 samples (alumina ceramic constituent) as `self-consistent within the statistics of counting.' Lines used are: 239 keV (212Pb), 352 keV (214Pb), 583 keV (208Tl), 911 keV (228Ac), and the two 214Bi lines.

Other remarks:

ppm: parts per million by weight, = conc. 106 ppb: parts per (US) billion by weight, = conc. 109
ppt: parts per (US) trillion by weight, = conc. 1012   errors: 0.035(10) (e.g.) means 0.035 0.01 (1 s.)
1 kru = 103 decays/day/kg