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UK DM project: radioactivity test results

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SNO data

sample (source) analysis U conc.
(ppb)
Th conc.
(ppb)
K conc.
(ppm)
comments
by method
Acrylic (Polycast) J
K
M
?
NAA
TIMS
ICPMS
a-count
-blank
0.0195
2.3(1)10-4
-blank
0.005(6)
0.0019
2.3(1)10-4
0.003(3)
  Goal: 3.6 ppt U, 1.9 ppt Th
Acrylic (Reynolds & Taylor) J
M
NAA
a-count
< 0.028
~ 0.004
0.012(9)
~ 0.008
   
Activated charcoal J NAA 1 - 11 < 2 - 18    
Al (Cominco) (6N) J NAA 14 4    
Al (Kingston Ind., NY) J NAA 2300 < 200   alloy?
Al (MRC UHP) J NAA 1 - 3 0.5 - 4    
Al (`Omega mirror') J
J
NAA
GES
890(90)
< 20
118(4)
400(20)
 
or 940(200) ppb U, 13(20) ppb Th
Al (Reynolds kitchen foil) J
J
NAA
GES
1110(110)
< 25
61(2)
180(25)
   
Al 1100 (99% (a)) J NAA   200    
Al 1350 (99.45% (a)) J GES < 5 180(10)   or 740(40) ppb U, < 10 ppb Th
Al 2011 (5.5% Cu, 0.4% Pb, 0.4% Bi (a)) J NAA 630 - 870 150 - 320    
Al 2024 (4.2% Cu, 1.6% Mg (a)) J NAA 510 100 - 180    
Al 3002 (0.2% Mn, 0.1% Mg (a)) J NAA 1000 < 1000    
Al 5252 (2.6% Mg (a)) J NAA 3100 < 200    
Al 5657 (0.8% Cr (a)) J NAA 1300 < 200    
Al 6061 (1% Mg, 0.6% Si, 0.3% Cu, 0.2% Cr (a)) J NAA 930 100 - 170    
Al alloy (Alcan 66250 HO) J
J
NAA
GES
350(40)
< 4
67(3)
440(10)
 
or 410(80) ppb U, < 6 ppb Th
Alumina (calcined, Canada) J GES 14(2) 65(8) 30(4)  
Alumina (Japan) J GES 12(2) 22(6) 10(4) or 680(80) ppb U
Alumina (CERA Hydrate) J GES 12(3) 17(10) < 1  
Alumina (Nippon) J GES 50 < 200    
Bakelite (PMT base) J GES 670(100) 4070(60) 780(30)  
Borax (anhydrous, generic) J GES 7(2) 55(10) 60(4)  
Borax (anhydrous, USA) J GES 40(6) 150(40) 40(10) (mean of 2)
Borax (generic) J GES 36(3) 145(9) 40(4)  
Borax (Gran Sq., USA) J GES 8(3) 0(10) 10(4)  
Boric acid (anh. HP, USA) J GES 8(1) 6(6) 10(4)  
Boric acid (generic) J GES 2(3) 1(7) 10(4)  
Boric acid (Japan) J GES 2(2) 5(5) 10(4)  
Boron compounds (for glass) J GES < 10 < 10    
Boron nitride J NAA   470   U `not detected'
Brazil nuts J GES 3340(60) 1.04(1)104 7950(60) or < 460 ppb U, 2.07(2)104 ppb Th
Cable (Belden type 9067) J GES < 10 77(25) 20(10)  
Cable (black jacket from above) J GES < 8 47(17) < 10 or 4(16) ppb Th
Cable (coaxial) J GES 4(6) 60(20) < 5  
Capacitor (Philips KP/MMKP HQ, 2kV) J GES 80(9) 276(23) 130(10)  
Cement (Bath, Canada) J GES 1090(40) 4240(100) 7450(130)  
Cement (Portland, Canada) J GES 2350(75) 3120(100) 1580(40) `white, type 10'
Cement (Richmond, Canada) J GES 2360(50) 1220(70) 2360(80) or 4100(500) ppb U
Ceramic (dynode squares; USA) J GES 61(8) 160(70) 80(20) or 810(70) ppb U
Ceramic (green; UK) J GES 720(180) 3870(190) 2460(140)  
Ceramic (green, PMT; USA) J GES 190(60) 320(60) 140(20)  
Ceramic (mauve ring; USA) J GES 545(15) 2350(150) 150(20)  
Ceramic (PMT; USA) J GES 130(10) 200(30): 220(20)  
Ceramic (PMT; USA) J GES 1200(200) 960(30) 290(20)  
Ceramic (PMT posts; USA) J GES 1090(40) 2230(100) 890(70)  
Ceramic (white; UK) J GES 50(20) 130(50) 170(40)  
Ceramic (white, PMT; USA) J GES 3270(210) 2160(280) 610(200)  
Ceramic (white ring; USA) J GES 2100(50) 1340(70) 110(20)  
Circuit board (flexible) J GES 200(40) 690(90) 90(30)  
Concrete (Bath, Canada) J GES 76(5) 560(15) 900(20) or 420(80) ppb U
Concrete (borated) J GES 512(12) 290(16) 470(20)  
Concrete 1 J NAA 320 650    
Concrete 2 J NAA 1480 3675    
Cu 101 (OFHC) J NAA < 20 < 1   U + Th < 30 ppt, via b/g with Cu shield
Cu 110 J NAA < 20 < 1    
D2O (AECL) M
K
K
ICPMS
TIMS
TIMS
-blank
3.110-5
1.110-5
4(1)10-5
2.710-5
4.510-5
  Goal: 0.011 ppt U, Th
after resin column
D2O (Ontario Hydro) M
K
K
ICPMS
TIMS
TIMS
310-4
2.210-4
2.010-5
1.5(5)10-4
3.910-4
5.310-5
   
Dessicant (Davison Chemical)
(silica gel, gr. 40, 6-12 mesh)
J GES 210(10) 135(12) 10(5) or 267(15) ppb Th
Dessicant (Drierite, USA) J GES 240(12) 70(20) 170(10) anhydrous CaSO4
Dolomite G NAA 9(1) 9(3)   --> sulfurcrete (87%)
Dolomite (`bluish') J GES 96(3) 325(25) 160(10)  
Dolomite (`East') J GES 13(1) 2(3) 10(4)  
Dolomite (`middle') J GES 12(2) 6(3) 50(4)  
Dolomite (`sandy-stained') J GES 11(3) 15(10) 40(4)  
Dolomite (`West') J GES 4(2) 2(3) 30(4)  
Dolomite (`whitish-grey') J GES 11(3) 5(7) 40(4)  
Epoxy (brown) J NAA 350 2325    
Epoxy (white) J NAA 150 61    
Fibreglass J NAA - 5000    
Furnace liner (`special') J NAA 185(5) 167(9) 190(20)  
Furnace liner (`special') J NAA 90(10) 130(10) 110(10)  
Furnace liner (`special') J NAA 150(30) 140(10) 90(10)  
Furnace liner (`standard') J NAA 1.5(3)105 1.2(3)105 3(1)103  
Glass (cullet, USA) J GES 360(7) 340(25) 350(10)  
Glass (Hamamatsu PM) J GES 380(15) 400(30) 70(10)  
Glass (Hamamatsu PM) J GES 275(10) 290(30) 90(10)  
Glass (Japan) J GES 264(15) 380(30) 3660(60)  
Glass (Japan) J GES 970(20) 520(30) 7160(70)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 1') J GES 350(15) 610(30) 180(15) mean of 4
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 1') J GES 256(6) 218(9) 210(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 2') J GES 380(25) 460(60) 80(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 2') J GES 420(30) 450(80) 110(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 2') J GES 320(30) 420(70) 90(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 2') J GES 410(30) 440(70) 100(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 2') J GES 340(30) 400(70) 100(10)  
Glass (Japan, `manufacturer 3') J GES 725(11) 211(11) 1070(20)  
Glass (`low-rad', UK) J GES 201(8) 115(18) 140(10)  
Glass (Netherlands) J GES 1500(30) 1150(20) 1120(20)  
Glass (Netherlands, 6) J GES 150(50) 240(30) 350(30)  
Glass (Netherlands, 211) J GES 88(15) 110(50) 220(30) or 350(110) ppb U
Glass (plates, UK) J GES 129(5) 250(20) 300(10)  
Glass (Schott 8020) J GES 1085(10) 840(40) 70(10)  
Glass (Schott 8245) J GES 1090(20) 860(30) 1390(20)  
Glass (Schott 8246) J GES 93(4) 63(15) 60(10)  
Glass (Schott 8246) J GES 76(10) 70(20) 30(10)  
Glass (Schott 8246) J GES 18(4) 18(4) 25(5)  
Glass (Schott 8246) J GES 22(5) 20(4) 30(5)  
Glass (slides, USA) J GES 240(20) 600(30) 1.02(1)104  
Glass (Soviet Union) J GES 55(7) 72(15) 20(10)  
Glass (USA) J GES 780(40) 690(70) 6.13(3)104  
Glass (USA, B472) J GES 81(3) 40(5) 270(10)  
Glass (USA, UV1008) J GES 460(15) 310(20) 80(10)  
Glass (USA, 300) J GES 1(1) 20(6) < 5  
Glass solder J GES 25(3) 39(7) 20(5)  
Gypsum J GES 725(25) 225(25) 920(20)  
In (scrap) J GES 1(2) 6(7) 10(4)  
Kevlar (rope; dacron sleeve) J NAA < 0.07 0.36(18) -  
Kevlar (rope; 29 type 96 O) ? ? - 0.13(6) -  
KMnO4 J GES 12(10) 30(20) 2.46 105  
Lime (CaOMgO) J GES 40(3) 40(10) 100(10)  
Mg J NAA - < 0.6    
Mg (ALFA) B GES 6(9) 4(4) 2(2)  
Mg (Norsk Hydro) B GES 63(14) 16(4) 1(3) U not in equilibrium
Mg (Timminco) B GES 9(10) 0(4) 0(2)  
Mn coated acrylic beads J GES 29(14) 30(60) 4.70(3)104  
MnO2 J GES 8(2) 52(9) 10(4)  
Molecular sieve (Nuclear Diodes) J GES 710(40) 2280(110) 1830(90) or 10.3(4) ppm U
Molecular sieve (Union Carbide 4A) J GES 900(30) 2590(60) 2720(30)  
Molecular sieve (Union Carbide 5A) J GES 1200(50) 2780(80) 3180(100)  
Molecular sieve (Union Carbide 13X-LRG) J GES 613(17) 1930(60) 1950(20)  
Molecular sieve (UOP 4A, no binder) J GES 170(30) 400(30) 170(10)  
Molecular sieve (UOP 13X, no binder) J GES 224(18) 630(70) 210(10)  
Neoprene J NAA   162   U `not detected'
Nepheline syenite J GES 36(7) 200(30) 7.73(1)104  
Nepheline syenite (Canada) J GES 370(20) 875(50) 3.77(2)104  
Nepheline syenite (Norway) J GES 36(3) 150(10) 7.62(1)104  
Nylon J NAA   0.6   U `not detected'
Pb J NAA < 9 < 1    
Polycarbonate J NAA < 1.5 1    
PM tube (Hamamatsu R1449) J GES 370 470   Goal: 100 ppb U, Th
PVC J GES 42(7) 19(4) 20(3)  
Quartz (Norway, XLA01) J GES 3(1) 0(3) 1(4)  
Quartz powder (UK, UHP 20) J GES 38(4) 18(6) 10(5)  
Quartz powder (UK, UHP 50) J GES 100(20) 29(6) 20(5)  
`Residue' J GES 96(6) 885(25) 10(10) from cement manufacture
Resistor (Philips) J GES 120(50) 620(120) 320(50)  
Rock (aggregate, Sov. U.) J GES 66(5) 106(5) 170(10)  
Rock (Dunite, Soviet Union) J GES 0(2) 20(8) 10(4)  
Rock (serpentinized Mg pyroxide, Canada) J GES 23(2) 78(5) 140(10)  
Rock salt J NAA < 65 2.6    
Salt, coarse pickling J GES 2(4) 6(7) 80(1)  
Salt, table, iodized J GES 1(1) 3(2) 40(4) Goal: 1 ppt U, Th
Sand (boric, Japan) J GES 15(2) 43(10) 20(4) for glass
Sand (Canada) J GES 10(1) 20(6) 30(4) for glass
Sand (fine FeSi, Canada) J GES 1062(20) 5050(50) 90(10) or 2400(150) ppb U
Sand (fluorspar, Canada) J GES 575(20) 790(30) 170(10)  
Sand (Germany) J GES 130(5) 255(12) 70(4) for glass
Sand (Germany) J GES 122(4) 249(10) 90(4) for glass
Sand (Hint, Canada) J GES 158(6) 415(25) 270(10)  
Sand (MTS, Canada) J GES 300(25) 2160(50) 1200(40)  
Sand (quartz) J GES 6(2) 22(3) 140(10) for glass
Sand (quintus, Norway) J GES 263(11) 322(14) < 10  
Sand (silicic, Japan) J GES 140(7) 320(15) 50(10)  
Sand (Soviet Union) J GES 140(3) 390(10) 380(10) in concrete
Scintillator paint (USA) J GES 40(30) 20(60) 80(40)  
Silica (Midland, 325M, Canada) J GES 440(20) 2650(100) 1430(60)  
Silica (Minex-4, Norway) J GES 200(15) 375(25) 4.4(2)104  
Silica (St. Canut, 325M) J GES 200(15) 560(25) 550(30)  
Silica (Minnor) J GES 0.006 0.24    
Silicone (Dow Corning `Sylgard' 527A)
Silicone (`Sylgard' 527B)
J
J
GES
GES
< 12
< 9
< 23
< 17
< 10
< 10
527A and B are 2-part `potting compound'; proportions unknown
Silicone (GE RTU 6196A)
Silicone (GE RTU 6196B)
Silicone (GE SR-900)
 
J
J
J
 
GES
GES
GES
 
< 13
< 12
< 11
 
< 25
< 22
< 22
 
< 10
< 10
< 10
 
`potting compound', 3-part: `polymer';
`curing agent';
`resin solution':
proportions unknown
Solder (Kester, 0.75 mm dia., 44 resin core, 63/37 alloy) J GES 2(4) 27(15) 10(5)  
Spectra (rope; olefin sleeve) J NAA 0.17(13) 0.25(10) -  
SRX polymer G NAA 43(8) 120(40)   --> sulfurcrete (1.2%)
SRX polymer J GES 55(5) 145(25) 250(10)  
SRX polymer J GES 50(4) 160(10) 90(4)  
Stainless steel (NMBA, Japan) J GES 4(2) < 3 < 5 PMT parts
Stainless steel (SUS304, Japan) J GES 5(3) 14(6) 10(5) PMT parts
Stainless steel (304 plates, US) J GES < 1 < 1 < 5  
St. st. welding rod (316L, USA) J GES < 1 < 1 < 5  
St. st. welding wire (USA) J GES < 1 3(1) < 5  
Sulfurcrete J GES 14(1) 17(2) 30(4) uses Haley dolomite
Sulfurcrete G NAA 11 9 87  
Sulphur G NAA 8(3) 14(7)   --> sulfurcrete (12%)
Sulphur J GES 9(1) 20(4) 20(4) --> sulfurcrete (12%)
Sulphur (yellow disks, Canada) J GES 2(1) 2(5) 10(4)  
Te-Cu J NAA   < 24   U `not detected'
Teflon film J NAA < 0.017 < 0.010    
Teflon powder J NAA   < 1   U `not detected'
Teflon rod J NAA 0.7 0.6    
Teflon sheet J NAA 0.2 0.2    
Ti J NAA - < 14    
Tubing (Tygon R3603, USA) J GES < 8 < 15 < 5  
Tubing (Polyclear, USA) J GES < 8 < 15 < 5  
Vectran (rope) J NAA 0.14(1) 0.68(12) -  
Vectran (rope) J NAA 0.17(1) 0.61(24) -  
Vespel J NAA 1 2    
Viton J NAA 162 80    
Water (distilled) J
K
GES?
TIMS
-blank
1.610-5
< 0.002
1.410-4
  Goal: 0.015 ppt U, 0.022 ppt Th
Water (double-distilled) K TIMS 2.710-6 6.410-6    
ZnS (BDH, UK) J GES 15(3) 23(6) 20(5) or 750(60) ppb U
ZnS (Canada) J GES 140(40) 130(80) 130(50)  
Analysts: Analysis methods:
B: J. C. Barton GES: Gamma Emission Spectroscopy
G: University of Guelph ICPMS: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy
J: P. Jagam et al. NAA: Neutron Activation Analysis
K: W. R. Kelly (NBS) TIMS: Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry
M: J. W. McLaren (NRC)

Notes:

GES results assume U, Th chains in equilibrium, with counting on 214Bi (U) and 208Tl (Th). Jagam & Simpson also give U from 234Pa & 235U for many samples and Th from 228Ac for a few; I have noted these where they differ by more than 2 s. Note that glasses 6 - 35 in Table 2 of this paper in fact identify glasses 8 - 37 of Table 1; and in Table 3, `N/A' means `not attempted' (generally because other activity precluded meaningful measurements) and `N/D' means `not detected' (John Simpson, personal communication. He doesn't explain why they chose not to give a detection limit in the latter cases).

(a): Compositions from R. B. Ross, Metallic Materials Specification Handbook, 4th ed., Chapman & Hall, 1992

Other remarks:

ppm: parts per million by weight, = conc. 106 ppb: parts per (US) billion by weight, = conc. 109
ppt: parts per (US) trillion by weight, = conc. 1012   errors: 0.035(10) (e.g.) means 0.035 0.01 (1 s.)
1 kru = 103 decays/day/kg