UK DM project: radioactivity test results

UKDMC data (including suppliers' data)

Index:

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I, J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X-Z

Notes

sample (source)

analysis

U conc.
(ppb)

Th conc.
(ppb)

K conc.
(ppm)

comments

by

method

A

 

[Index]

Acrylic (-?-) (Perspex?)

I

NAA

0.7

1.6

 

 

Acrylic (-?-) (Perspex?)

I

NAA

< 10

< 2

1.39(3)

 

Acrylic (Perspex) (Harris Spur Ltd)

E

ICPMS

< 0.01

< 0.01

< 0.05

DRIFT inner shield

Acrylic (Lucite; RAL stores)

I

NAA

< 3

0.64

< 1.7

 

Acrylic (-?-) (Plexiglass)

I

NAA

< 10

< 4

0.69(1)

 

Acrylic (Polycast UVT 450)

I

NAA

< 1.2

< 1.2

0.33(1)

 

Al block (-?-)

B

GES

0(40)(b)

330(70)(e)

-120(20)

 

Al: Kryal UTH 5 (VAW)

S

GDMS

2.1

2.8

-

 

Al sheet (-?-)

B

GES

-60(50)(b)

120(70)(e)

-70(30)

 

Al tube (ICST) (used in April 92 Boulby run)

B

GES

0(3)(b)

190(15)(e)

 

1.70(35) ppm U from 234mPa

Alumina (CERN, 96%)

I

NAA

139

< 5

62

 

Alumina (Quartz & Silice)

I

NAA

400(10)

16.2(5)

< 19

used in JCB NaI(Tl)

Alumina powder, 0.3 mm

A

NAA

< 46

< 430

4.7(1.8)

Used in polishing NaI crystals

Aluminized Melinex/Mylar: see Melinex

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ano-Fol (Ano-Coil)
(anodized 99.98% Al)

E

GDMS

25

110

10

Rb < 10 ppb; Lu < 5 ppb
0.5mm thick, 90% specular reflectance

APD (Si photodiode; from IC)

I

NAA

< 1.5

< 7

< 0.6

K > 0.2 ?

Araldite (CIBA) (twin-pack)

R

AA

-

-

< 2

 

Araldite (CIBA) (twin-pack)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

0.254(6)

 

Araldite (CIBA) (twin-pack rapid)

I

NAA

< 1.2

< 1.4

0.37(2)

 

Araldite 139 (Harshaw)

I

NAA

< 5

< 22

< 0.13

in NaI(Tl) assemblies.

Araldite AV123+HV953B (Q&S)

I

NAA

1.8(2)

447(22)

305(13)

 

Araldite AW106+HV953U (Q&S)

I

NAA

9.7(5)

< 6

0.42(2)

 

Araldite AW106+HV953U (B&K Resins)

I

NAA

< 1.2

< 1.0

0.052(3)

10:8 by weight, RAL

Araldite 2014 (B&K Resins)

I

NAA

< 2600

980(50)

27(1)

2:1 resin 950, HV997(?), RAL

B

 

[Index]

BaF2 (Merck low a)

I

NAA

< 1000

< 4000

< 0.3

a ~ 5 Bq/kg

Barytes (-?-) (BaSO4)

H

ICPMS

1000(100)

160(20)

-

 

Barytes DM/SB (Tilcon)

R

AA

-

-

54

 

Bicron paint, 620

B

GES

40(b)

100(e)

100

 

Bicron paint, 622

B

GES

< 10(b)

< 10(e)

< 10

 

Bi4Ge3O16 (-?-)

L

GDMS

< 60

< 10

62(9)

 

Bis-MSB (NE) (scintillator)

I

NAA

< 3

< 3

0.20(1)

 

ZS3 Evaporite (halite)

R
I
B

AA
NAA
GES

-       
< 60
10(10)

-         
< 100
220(40)

> 400(a)
-        
750(50)


K masked by Na

ZS3 Evaporite (halite), JIF area

E

GDMS

15(2)

25(2)

1200(120)

~ 1 g paler part of mid-JIF sample

ZS3 Evaporite (halite)

U

GES

105(10)
70(10)

140(10)
125(10)

1280(200)
1130(200)

`Old' cavern
New (JIF) cavern

ZS3 Evaporite (polyhalite)

E

GDMS

3.8

28

-

One end of sample, limits only from other. K formss matrix

Brass nuts (Clerkenwell) (used in GaAs rig)

E

GDMS

< 0.03

≤ 0.12

< 5

Lu < 53 ppt; Rb < 0.4 ppb

`Brattish' sheeting (Boulby)

B

GES

18(15)(b)

20(35)(e)

40(30)

 

Brazil nuts

B

GES

2530(130)(b)

6980(280)(e)

2.380 104

 

Brazing rod (95% Cu, 5% Sn)

E

GDMS

< 0.046

< 0.018

< 0.004

Lu < 51 ppt; Rb < 70 ppt

Britomya C (Croxton) (CaCO3)

R

AA

-

-

50

 

Britomya V (Croxton)

R

AA

-

-

205

 

Bronze (mesh)

L

GDMS

< 1.5

< 1

0.49(4)

 

Butyl-PBD (NE) (scintillator)

I
H
H
 

NAA
ICPMS
ICPES
 

< 3
1(1)
-       
 

< 10
0.17(14)
-         
 

0.53(2)
-        
0.21(9)
 

1.5% component of modified NE226
`means' of 5; ranges:
(ppb) U 0.1 - 3.0; Th 0.05 - 0.30;
K 0.1 - 0.3 ppm

Butyl rubber (-?-)

B

GES

30(12)(b)

?

100

 

C

 

[Index]

C6F6 (NE)

H
H

ICPES
ICPMS

-       
< 10-3

-         
< 2 10-4

< 10-3
-        

98.5% component of modified NE226

CaF2 (Aldrich) (4N powder)

I
H
H
H

NAA
ICPES
ICPES
ICPMS

< 20
-       
-       
5(2)

< 33
-         
-         
8(5)

< 15(1)(i)
0.7
≤ 5
-        


HCl leach(g)
dissolution(g)
dissolution(g)

CaF2 (Aldrich) (5N crystals)

I

NAA

< 16, 6

23(3)

-

 

CaF2 (Merck) (`as mined')

I

NAA

9(1)

96(3)

< 64(2)(i)

used for IR grade crystals

CaF2 (Merck) (IR grade crystal)

I

NAA

< 8

5(1)

< 11(1)(i)

 

CaF2 (Merck) (`Optipur' powder)

S
I
H
H
H

SE
NAA
ICPES
ICPES
ICPMS

-       
< 8
-       
-       
6(2)

-         
< 35
-         
-        
21(7)

< 5
< 15(1)(i)
0.2
≤ 5
-        

used (allegedly) for UV grade crystals

HCl leach(g)
dissolution(g)
dissolution(g)

CaF2 (Merck) (UV grade crystal)

I

NAA

< 6

63(7)

< 11(1)(i)

 

CaF2 (Merck) (UV, 0.5% Eu doped)

I

NAA

< 80

< 1200

-

 

CaF2 (Quartz & Silice)

I

NAA

< 5

< 2.5

-

 

CaF2 (Quartz & Silice) (Eu doped)

H
H

ICPMS
ICPES

< 5
-       

< 5
-         

-        
< 5

dissolution(h)

Calcite MOS 40 (Tilcon) (CaCO3)

R

AA

-

-

10

 

Capacitor, ceramic, 100pF

B

GES

1320(70)(b)

1550(200)(e)

860(120)

 

Capacitor, ceramic, 2200pF

B

GES

450(40)(b)

400(120)(e)

320(80)

 

Capacitor, ceramic, 3300pF (SGS Thomson)

B

GES

820(180)(b)

-240(530)(e)

1300(350)

 

Chalk (South coast quarries)

R

AA

-

-

> 71(a)

 

Chalk (Tidpit)

R

AA

-

-

42

 

CsI (BDH)

L

GDMS

< 30

< 30

0.62(25)

 

CsI (BDH, sublimed)

R
E

AA
GDMS

-       
< 0.02

-         
< 0.02

1.9
7

 

CsI (-?-)

B

GES

-20(10)(b)

0(20)(e)

-20(10)

 

CsI (Chemstall)

L

GDMS

< 1900

< 1400

< 30

 

CsI (Hilger)

L

GDMS

< 300

< 110

< 240

 

CsI(Tl) (Hilger)

L

GDMS

< 800

< 600

2(1) 103

 

CsI(Tl) (Hilger)

B

GES

10(10)(b)

10(20)(e)

-30(10)

 

Cu (APL) (0.999998?) (sample)

L

GDMS

< 1

< 1

< 0.001

 

Cu (APL) (0.999996) (ingot)

L
E

GDMS
GDMS

< 1
< 0.1

< 1
< 0.1

0.035(1)
< 0.003

 
Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb < 1 ppb

Cu (detector shield)

E

GDMS

< 0.02

< 0.02

< 0.0032

Lu < 83 ppt; Rb < 0.35 ppb

Cu (`first' castle)

L

GDMS

< 3

< 3

0.015(3)

 

Cu (German, via JCB)

L

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

0.026(5)

 

Cu (mesh)

L

GDMS

< 1

< 1

0.34(1)

 

Cu C101 (RAL stores)

H

GES

 

 

 

137Cs < 30 kru; 60Co < 50 kru

Cu C101

E

GDMS

< 0.09

< 0.08

< 0.002

Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb < 0.8 ppb

Cu C101

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 0.01

 

Cu C103 (Outokumpu)

L

GDMS

< 1

3(1)

0.018(1)

85Rb 16(3) ppb; 87Rb 17(6) ppb; La, Lu < 1 ppb

Cu C103

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 0.01

 

Cu C106

E

GDMS

< 0.02

< 0.02

< 0.005

Lu 0.7 ppb; Rb 2 ppb

Cu C110 (Outokumpu)

L

GDMS

< 1

2(1)

0.035(10)

85Rb 40(8) ppb; 87Rb 36(8) ppb; La, Lu < 1 ppb

Cu, electroformed

E

GDMS

< 0.018

< 0.018

< 0.0029

Lu < 11 ppt; Rb 0.28 ppb

Cu, electroformed (Waveform)

E

GDMS

< 0.012

< 0.013

11(2)

Rb ≤ 0.49 ppb; Lu < 28 ppt
(K in bath!)

Cu, electroformed (Waveform)

E

GDMS

< 0.012

< 0.011

< 0.0056

Lu < 0.6 ppb; Rb < 0.26 ppb (no K!)

Cu (-?-)

E

GDMS

< 0.015

< 0.016

0.050

Lu < 12 ppt; Rb < 0.12 ppb

Cu

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 0.01

ZEPLIN II vessel

Cu used in brazing 2 kg NaI cooled castle assembly

E

GDMS

< 0.005

< 0.004

< 0.01

Rb 2.6 ppb

Cu(90)Ti(10) alloy

E

GDMS

2.0(2)

70(7)

3.5(4)

possible high-strength alloy for ZEPLIN vessels

Cu alloy swarf (USA)

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

≤ 0.5

swarf from US ZEPLIN-II vessel

CS2

H
H

ICPMS
ICPES

< 0.0006
-         

< 0.001
-          

-        
< 0.006

(29/11/05) Fresh CS2 from SIgma Aldrich for DRIFT

D

 

[Index]

Diamond paste, 0.25 mm
(Kay Industrial Diamond Corp.)

A

NAA

< 31

114(34)

< 5.8

Used in polishing NaI crystals

Diamond paste, 10 mm
(Kay Industrial Diamond Corp.)

A

NAA

< 33

61(23)

< 5.1

Used in polishing NaI crystals

Dolomite (Cookson)

R

AA

-

-

23

 

Dolomite (Haley, Canada) (CaCO3, MgCO3)

R
I

AA
NAA

-        
< 30

-           
< 50

14
31

 

Dolomite (Tilcon, ex Raisby)

S

?

-

-

200

high in Ca

Dolomite (Tilcon, Spain)

S
R
H

XRF
AA
ICPMS

-        
-        
160

-           
-           
60

< 100
26(a)
-        

 

E

 

[Index]

Eccobond 45 (Harshaw)

I

NAA

400(30)

1550(40)

5220(130)

in `bad' NaI(Tl) assembly.

Elvalloy (-?-)

B

GES

72(14)(b)

?     

70(27)

 

Emery cloth, P600
(Norton Tufbak Durite)

A

NAA

< 67

< 170

< 1.3

Used in polishing NaI crystals

Epicure 3800 / CY221 (Quartz & Silice)

I

NAA

9(2)

< 4

< 0.26

high in Na

Epotek 301 (Hilger)

B

GES

< 30(b)

< 80(e)

< 70

 

Epotek 301 (Hilger)

I

NAA

< 3
< 2.5

24(1)
< 2.3

1.61(5)
0.78(4)

surface contamination
after careful cleaning; 7 day count.

Epotek 301 (Quartz & Silice)

I

NAA

< 3

< 5

0.59(2)

 

Epotek 301 (Quartz & Silice)

I

NAA

< 1.2

< 2

0.034(2)

Batch 2322

Epotek 302

I

NAA

< 1

< 1.2

0.021(1)

optical coupling

Epotek 310 (Hilger)

B

GES

< 30(b)

< 80(e)

< 70

 

Epotek 310 (Hilger)

I

NAA

< 2

< 4

0.47(1)

 

Epotek 310 (Hilger)

I

NAA

< 1.2

< 1.7

0.42(1)

 

Epoxy resin (NE 581)

I

NAA

< 0.5

< 0.9

< 0.008

optical coupling

F

 

[Index]

Filler, black (Hilger)

I

NAA

< 30

< 27

< 1.4

may be used in resins

Filler, white (Hilger)

I

NAA

< 11

< 10

170(4)

ditto

Fluorspar (Tilcon) (CaF2)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Furnace lining (-?-)

B

GES

8950(150)(b)

2.71(4)104(e)

6560(50)

 

G

 

[Index]

GaAs (-?-)

E

GDMS

< 2

< 0.2

< 0.002

Lu < 0.2 ppb; Rb < 2 ppb

GaAs (MCP)

L

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 0.002

 

Glass, B47.2

B

GES

160(30)(b)

240(50)(e)

180(20)

 

Glass, Duran 8830

B

GES

950(50)(b)

2980(110)(e)

2000(30)

 

Glass, Hamamatsu PM (n)

H
H

ICPES
ICPMS

-       
90(10)

-         
140(10)

150(15)
-      

error estimates based on < 10% observed error in `quality control' samples

Glass, Hamamatsu PM (n)

E
E

ICPES
ICPMS

-       
44(14)

-         
50(10)

120(25)
-      

errors (except U) based on analyst's  estimate of 20%

Glass, Newcastle

B

GES

320(40)(b)

1020(70)(e)

870(30)

 

Glass, Pyrex (EMI)

B

GES

580(30)(b)

370(40)(e)

-50(20)

 

Glass, Schott 8245

B

GES

1050(90)(b)

820(140)(e)

290(50)

 

Glass, Schott 8246

B

GES

10(20)(b)

0(40)(e)

-50(20)

 

Glass, Soveril

B

GES

90(40)(b)

70(70)(e)

2.28(0)104

 

Gorilla Braid

E

ICPMS
AA

< 0.2
 

< 3
 

 
41(8)

fishing line

Granite (-?-)

B

GES

2960(90)(b)

1.94(3)104(e)

1.62(0)104

 

Guelph material: sample 1
 
                         sample 2

H

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

2700(540)
-       
2700(540)
-       

3600(720)
-       
3700(740)
-       

-       
63(13)102
-       
64(13)102

(15/07/05) Cross check sample: used by SNO for calibrating background radiation measurements.
It has 4.2 mg/g 232Th, 2.9 mg/g U in equilibrium with progeny and 0.8% K.

H

 

[Index]

H3BO3

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

< 0.1

 

I, J

 

[Index]

K

 

[Index]

Kapton film (-?-)

I

NAA

< 8

< 9

1.9(1)

 

L

 

[Index]

LDPE (commercial grade: QX-D)

I

NAA

< 0.5

< 5

< 0.3

(Low Density PolyEthylene)

LDPE (neutron shielding grade: A)

I

NAA

< 0.5

< 4

< 0.2

 

LiF (BDH)

I

NAA

< 5

< 7

< 0.1

 

LiF (BDH) (sublimed)

I

L

NAA

GDMS

< 6
< 4
< 90
< 910

< 7
< 5
< 130
< 670

< 0.1
< 0.1
13(1)
32

two samples

U, Th limits poor

Limestone (-?-)

B

GES

0(30)(b)

-10(50)(e)

-70(20)

 

Limestone (ex Raisby)

R

AA

-

-

42

 

Limestone (ex Stainton)

S
R

?
AA

-
-

-
-

30
> 55(a)

 

M

 

[Index]

Magnesite (Tilcon) (MgO)

R

AA

-

-

95

 

Marble (Tilcon)

R
H

AA
ICPMS

-       
1500

-         
≤ 20

11
-        

 

Marine basalt (Fawcett)

S

?

-

-

7000

 

Melinex/Mylar, aluminized (AS)

B

GES

55(8)(b)

40(20)(e)

20(20)

12 m sheet

Melinex/Mylar, aluminized (RAL stores)

I

NAA

< 1000

< 2000

3.0(3)

high in Sb; 50 m

Melinex/Mylar, aluminized (Oxford Instruments)

E

ICPMS
AA

< 0.2
 

< 3
 

 
50(10)

 

Metal polish (Carr, Day, Martin)

B

GES

170(35)

1200(150)

790(140)

RAL stores

Mg alloy (Ortec Ge detector)

E

GDMS

0.5

61

< 0.02

proposed housing

N

 

[Index]

NaI (BDH, sublimed)

R
E

AA
GDMS

-       
< 0.5

-         
< 0.5

3500
2.20104

 

NaI (Hilger)

B

GES

-

-

71(11)

Boulby test: > 60 ppm

NaI (Hilger)

U

GES

< 0.3

< 1

0.19(7)

Boulby test

NaI (Quartz & Silice)

U

GES

< 0.3

< 1

0.07(6)

Boulby test

NaI ingot AF/25/7390, `top' (Hilger)

R
E

AA
GDMS

-       
< 0.4

-         
< 0.5

18.4(3)
270

 

NaI ingot AF/25/7390, `bottom' (Hilger)

R
E

AA
GDMS

-       
< 0.3

-         
< 0.3

51.3(5)
120

 

NaI ingot AF/25/7390, `residue'

R

AA

-

-

24.3(5)

 

NaI (Hilger)

R

AA

-

-

0.60(5)

used for ingot AF/25/7390

NaI(Tl) (Harshaw) (boule 1)

S

GES?

-

-

0.3

 

NaI(Tl) (Harshaw) (boule 2)

S

GES?

-

-

0.3

 

NaI (low Tl) (Hilger)

L

GDMS

< 3

< 2

14(4)

 

NaI(Tl) (Hilger)

L

GDMS

< 3

< 3

950(80)

 

NaI processed by QMW (k)

H

ICPMS

< 0.006

< 0.009

 

Report to John Eddington definitely states LODs of 6pg/g, 9 pg/g. However, I suspect these should be ng/g, since claimed sensitivity isn't attained in any other samples except following enrichment.

Naphthalene (NE) (scintillator)

I

NAA

< 3

< 6

0.085(3)

 

Nb (single crystal)

E

GDMS

< 0.29

< 0.28

< 0.037

Lu < 1 ppb; Rb < 5.7 ppb

Nb wire

E

GDMS

< 0.064

< 0.054

0.15

Lu < 97 ppt; Rb < 1.1 ppb

NE118 (NE) (plastic scintillator)

I

NAA

< 2

< 2

< 0.13

 

NE224 (NE) (pseudocumene-based)

I

NAA

< 1.5

< 6

< 0.117

 

NE224 (NE) (pseudocumene-based)

I

NAA

< 0.02

< 0.02

0.0035

(concentrated by evaporation)

NE226, mod (NE) (C6F6 -based)

H
H

ICPMS
ICPES

< 0.007
-       

< 0.013
-         

-        
< 0.01

butyl-PBD gives ~8 ppb K

NE581: see epoxy

 

 

 

 

 

 

NE588: see silicone

 

 

 

 

 

 

NiCu (Le Bronze Industriel)

E

GDMS

3.7(4)

0.37(4)

< 0.01

(2/05) Possible new alloy

Ni pellets (from carbonyl)

E

GDMS

< 0.032

< 0.022

< 0.013

Lu < 40 ppt; Rb < 0.63 ppb

Ni (electroformed from pellets from carbonyl)

E

GDMS

0.20(4)

< 0.076

< 0.0074

Lu < 59 ppt; Rb < 0.73 ppb

Noryl engineering plastic

B

GES

70

 

70

 

Nusil: see silicone elastomer or grease

 

 

 

 

 

 

O

 

[Index]

P

 

[Index]

Paint, reflective (Eljen EJ-520): sample 1
 
                                                sample 2

H

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

10(2)
-       
8.7(17)
-       

20(4)
-       
17 (3)
-       

-       
10 (2)
-       
6(1)

(15/07/05) ZEPLIN-II

Paraffin wax, borated

H

ICPMS
ICPES

6.4(13)
-       

4(1)
-       

-       
2.4 (5)

(15/07/05) ZEPLIN-II: top neutron shielding

Pb (Associated Lead)

E

GDMS

< 0.07

< 0.06

< 0.001

Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb < 0.7 ppb

Pb (Boliden)

L
 
I
H
E
S

GDMS
 
NAA
GES
GDMS
b-count

2(1)
 
< 10
-       
< 0.06
-       

10(4)
 
< 14
-         
< 0.06
-         

< 0.02
 
< 0.034
-        
< 0.0015
-        

85Rb 18(4) ppb; 87Rb 18(1) ppb;
La, Lu < 1ppb
 
137Cs < 5 kru; 60Co < 20 kru
Lu < 0.2 ppb; Rb < 1.6 ppb
210Pb ≤ 1200(60) kru

Pb (Calder)

E

GDMS

< 0.1

< 0.1

< 0.01

 

Pb (GEC shielding)

L

GDMS

< 1

< 1

0.004(1)

 

Pb (ICST)

H

GES

 

 

 

137Cs < 30 kru; 60Co < 20 kru

Pb (RAL `B2')

L

GDMS

< 0.7

< 0.5

< 0.01

 

Pb (Salisbury Cathedral)(f)

E
R
L

GDMS
AA
GDMS

< 0.1
-       
< 1

< 0.1
-         
< 1

≤ 0.6
1.5(1)
0.005(1)

Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb ≤ 5 ppb
 
 

Pb (Salisbury Cathedral) `A'

E
R

GDMS
AA

< 0.4
-       

< 0.03
-         

< 0.003
1.1(8)

Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb < 0.2 ppb
 

Pb (Salisbury Cathedral) `B'

E
R

GDMS
AA

< 0.1
-       

< 0.03
-         

0.85
15(1)

Lu 1 ppb; Rb 20 ppb
 

Pb (Victorian, Norwich?)

I
L

NAA
GDMS

< 110
< 1

< 240
< 1

< 4
0.007(3)

 

PCB (-?-)

B

GES

1350(70)(b)

4370(24)(e)

990(120)

 

PCB (Electron Tubes)

E

ICPMS
ICPES

380(76)
-       

1100(220)
-       

-       
310(62)

(19/10/04) PCB for ZEPLIN-II PMTs. Note the mentioning of PCB resistor in the report is wrong and the results refer to the whole board.

Perspex: see acrylic

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phosphor-bronze (Cu 95%, Sn 4%, P 1%) (`old' sample)

E

GDMS

< 0.1

< 0.1

< 0.01

Lu < 0.5 ppb; Rb < 1 ppb

Phosphor-bronze (Cu 95%, Sn 4.7%, Zn, P 0.04%) (GaAs rig contacts)

E

GDMS

< 0.03

< 0.03

0.5

Lu < 91 ppt; Rb < 0.3 ppb

Phosphor-bronze (Cu 94%, Sn 5.2%, P 0.05%, Zn 0.04%) (GaAs repeat)

E

GDMS

< 0.06

< 0.06

1.0

Lu < 50 ppt; Rb < 0.4 ppb

Phosphor-bronze (Cu 96%, Sn 4.4%, P 0.06%) (`old' sample repeat(?))

E

GDMS

0.8

0.8

0.6

Lu < 0.2 ppb; Rb < 2 ppb

Pipe insulation/lagging (Armaflex)

E

ICPMS

52(5)

10(5)

< 30

Rb 260(30) ppb. Used on chiller pipes

Platinum sensors, PT100 (Hereaus)

I

NAA

< 4 104

< 9.5 104

2250(75)

(mostly alumina)

Plasterboard: sample 1
 
                     sample 2

E

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

690(138)
-       
750(150)
-       

180(36)
-       
190 (38)
-       

-       
800 (160)
-       
620(124)

(29/07/05) Plasterboard in the JIF area.

Plywood (sample 1)

E

ICPMS
ICPES

0.46(9)
-       

0.79(16)
-       

-       
400(80)

(07/11/04) Boulby floor plywood that will cover the DRIFT-II underfloor shielding.

Plywood (sample 2)

E

ICPMS
ICPES

0.67(13)
-       

4.3(9)
-       

-       
440(88)

(07/11/04) Boulby floor plywood that will cover the DRIFT-II underfloor shielding.

PM bulb (Hamamatsu R5912)(m)

S

GES?

81

74

97

 

PM bulb (Hamamatsu R7081)(m)

S

GES?

537

36

122

 

PM tube (Burle 5")

B

GES

≤ 200

≤ 200

~ 2000

assume 100g glass.

PM tube, ceramic (EMI) `small'

B

GES

~ 200?

~. 200?

50(50)

U + Th 400 ppm

PM tube, ceramic (EMI) `large'

B

GES

~ 250?

~ 250?

 

U + Th 500 ppm

PM tube, low b/g (EMI)

S

GES?

250(40)

200(50)

90(40)

 

PM tube, low b/g (EMI 5"; 9390B53)

S

 

27(20)

33(8)

74(16)

 

PM tube (ET 9823B)(o)

S

GES?

245(9)

280(9)

340(17)

 

PM tube (ET 9823QB)(o)

S

GES?

215(13)

240(13)

1400(110)

quartz window

PM tube, 8" (ET 9354B)(o)

S

GES?

30(17)

30(10)

70(17)

low b/g

PM tube (Hamamatsu R1250)(m)

S

GES?

307

306

17900

 

PM tube (Hamamatsu R1250)(m)

S

GES?

309

306

464

"Low RI" faceplate

ZS3 Evaporite (polyhalite): sample 1
                              sample 2

E

GDMS

< 1
28(3)

< 5
3.8(4)

Matrix
Matrix

(3/05) Two samples for possible new cavern

Polypropylene balls

E

ICPMS

0.80(9)(p)

0.14(1)

< 0.1

ashed and digested; neutron shielding. 0.1 ppb Sm

Polypropylene netting (on ends of 5 kg detector)

I

NAA

< 16

< 25

4.5(4)

 

Polypropylene - pellets

E

ICPMS
ICPES

0.13(3)
-       

< 0.05
-       

-       
0.31(6)

DRIFT-II pellets for shielding (Manufacturer: Albis)

Polypropylene - pellets 2nd batch: sample 1
 
                                                     sample 2

E

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

0.095(19)
-       
0.76(15)
-       

0.23(5)
-       
4.6 (9)
-       

-       
0.50 (10)
-       
0.10(2)

(29/07/05) Polypropylene pellets (2nd batch) for DRIFT-II shielding.

Polypropylene - sheet

E

ICPMS
ICPES

0.12(2)
-       

< 0.05
-       

-       
0.21(4)

DRIFT-II sheet for shielding (Manufacturer: ISPL)

Polythene (grey, barrel, WACO)

I
H

NAA
GES

< 0.3
< 80(b)

0.69
< 50(d)

2.0
< 1300


137Cs 80(70) kru; 60Co < 150 kru

Polythene (grey, granules, WACO) `raw' material for above

H

GES

 

 

 

137Cs 20(15) kru; 60Co <40 kru

Polythene (white, barrel, WACO)

I

NAA

< 7

< 4

1.6

Th sensitivity limited by high Co content

Polythene (white, granules, WACO)
Polythene (white, pellets, WACO)
(`raw' materials for above barrel, used in unknown proportions)

H
H
 
 

GES
GES
 
 

60(40)(b)
< 20(b)
 
 

270(180)(e)
200(130)(e)
 
 

< 330
< 100
 
 

137Cs <30 kru
60Co <40 kru
 
 

Polythene rope (for netting)

B

GES

0(10)(b)

20(30)(e)

4(27)

 

POPOP (NE) (scintillator)

I

NAA

< 4

< 5

0.85(3)

 

PPO (NE) (scintillator)

I

NAA

< 3

< 3

0.48(1)

 

P-terphenyl (NE) (scintillator)

I

NAA

< 3

< 5

0.25(1)

 

PTFE: sample 1
 
           sample 2
 
           sample 3

H

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

0.028(6)
-       
0.082(16)
-         
0.010(2)
-         

0.41(8)
-       
3.3(7)
-         
0.010(2)
-         

-       
0.059 (12)
-       
0.039(8)  
-         
0.074(15)

(13/06/05) ZEPLIN-II
Possible causes of big variation across samples:
samples from different positions in the original block
and/or residual surface contamination.

PTFE block (-?-) (liq. scint. cell)

I

NAA

< 0.8

< 0.8

18(1)

surface contamination

PTFE block (-?-)

I

NAA

-

-

< 9 10-4

above, surface layer removed

PTFE clips

I

NAA

< 1.7

< 1.7

0.25(1)

in GaAs rig

PTFE plumber's tape (RAL)

I

NAA

< 1

3(1)

0.288(8)

 

PTFE sheet, foamed (Gortex)

I

NAA

< 2

< 2

0.82(3)

Hilger wrapper

PVC adhesive tape (RAL stores)

I

NAA

< 1500

< 1600

30(2)

(black tape)

Q

 

[Index]

Quartz flour (Tilcon)

S

?

-

-

≤ 330

K2O + Na2O  400ppm

Quartz powder (-?-)

B

GES

-30(40)(b)

-10(60)(e)

110(30)

 

R

 

[Index]

Resin (Magnex, 2:1 Thiokol 308) (RAL)

I

NAA

18(2)

59(2)

0.78(2)

 

Resin (Magnex, 1:1 Versamid 840) (RAL)

I

NAA

17(2)

65(2)

0.52(1)

 

Resistor (Allen-Bradley)

B

GES

50(30)

160(110)

7(120)

< 20g sample

Resistor (Allen-Bradley)

I

NAA

275(20)

500(15)

310(10)

without leads

Resistor, 1 MW (Croster, C film)

B

GES

350(90)(b)

3130(300)(e)

700(170)

 

Resistor, 1 MW (Dale, metal film)

B

GES

350(160)(b)

130(500)(e)

1200(300)

 

Resistor, 1 MW (Welwyn, met. film)

B

GES

410(120)(b)

3970(410)(e)

790(230)

 

Resistor, 1 MW (Kamaya, C core)

B

GES

480(120)(b)

1140(370)(e)

1100(230)

 

Resistor, 1.2 MW (Philips, metal on ceramic)

B

GES

2340(110)(b)

1.03(4) 104 (e)

820(180)

 

Resistor components: SnPb
                                 Cu
                                 NiCu
                                 Al2O3

E

GDMS

1.0(1)
< 0.5
< 0.5
190(19)

1.5(2)
1.0(1)
3.0(3)
190(19)

~ 5
≤ 0.08
~ 20
23(2)

ZEPLIN-II

Resistor components: Blue ceramic
 
                                 Black ceramic +
                                 white substrate

E

ICPMS
ICPES
ICPMS
ICPES

480(48)
-       
200(20)
-         

1600(160)
-       
28(3)
-         

-       
6500(650)
-       
40(4)  

ZEPLIN-II

Rexalite (PCB?) (-?-)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

7.2(2)

 

Rexalite (Cu removed)

I

NAA

< 3

< 1

8.9(2)

 

S

 

[Index]

ZS3 Evaporaite (halite) (cavern wall)

R
I
B

AA
NAA
GES

-       
< 60
10(10)

-         
< 100
220(40)

> 400(a)
-        
750(50)

 

Salt (BSL, pure dried vacuum)

S

?

-

-

< 240

 

Salt (ICI granulated)

R

AA

-

-

< 10

 

Salt (ICI, pure dried vacuum)

S
R
I
H

?
AA
NAA
ICPMS

-       
-       
5
< 6

-         
-         
30
30

15
15
-        
-        

Co, Cs, I, Sr: all < 90 kru
 
 
 

Salt (WIPP cavern wall)

B

GES

440(80)

970(260)

4870(60)

 

Sand (BIS)

S
H

?
ICPES

-
-

-
-

80
66(3)

 

Si

E

GDMS

< 1

< 1

< 0.22

Lu < 1 ppb; Rb < 10 ppb

Si (Topsil HP)

L

GDMS

< 5

< 4

< 0.02

 

Si photodiode (APD; from IC)

I

NAA

< 1.5

< 7

< 0.6

K > 0.2 ?

Sifsilcopper 968 (Sifbronze)
(brazing rod: Cu + ~ 4% Si, Mn)

E

GDMS

< 0.033

< 0.025

0.028

Lu < 26 ppt; Rb 7 ppb

Silatin (RBH) (quartz + kaolite)

S

?

-

-

≤ 1700

K2O + Na2O 0.2%

Silfos (Ag, Cu, Sn solder)

E

GDMS

< 0.05

< 0.05

< 0.04

Lu < 0.1 ppb; Rb(?) < 0.1 ppb

Silica (Cookson)

S

?

-

-

250

`ground Loch Aline sand'

Silica (Heraeus, `Herasil', etc.)

S

NAA?

-

-

0.8

 

Silica (Heraeus, `Suprasil')

S

NAA

0.01 - 0.2

0.01 - 0.2

0.01

 

Silica (RBH)

S

?

-

-

750

Welsh, quarried

Silica fibre (TSL, `Spectrosil')

S

?

-

-

0.03

 

Silica fibre (TSL, `Vitreosil')

S

?

-

-

1.1

 

Silica flour CW 5/300 (Tilcon)

S
H

?
ICPES

-
-

-
-

5800
440(20)

 
 

Silica rod (TSL, Spectrosil B)

I

NAA

< 1.0

< 1.2

0.016(1)

 

Silica rod (TSL, Vitreosil B)

I

NAA

< 1.0

< 1.6

0.103(3)

`good' quality

Silica rod (TSL, Vitreosil M)

I

NAA

< 1.0

< 1.5

0.134(4)

`medium' quality

Silica sand (Blubber house)

S

?

-

-

3.3 104

 

Silica sand (Tilcon)

S
R

?
AA

-
-

-
-

5300
34

 
??

Silicone (Harshaw, `Sylgard')

I

NAA

< 2

< 10

1.0(1)

 

Silicone compound (Dow Corning M 54)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

0.21(2)

optical coupling

Silicone elastomer (Dow Corning 732 RTV)

I

NAA

< 1

< 2

2.30(6)

optical coupling

Silicone elastomer (Nusil CV1142)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

0.193(5)

low temperature sealant

Silicone grease, DC/200/500000 (IC)

I

NAA

< 5

< 3

0.69(2)

Dow-Corning

Silicone grease, DC/200/500000 (IC)
(h = 5 105 )

I

NAA

< 1

< 1.7

0.099(2)

from previously unused 250g bottle

Silicone grease (Dow Corning 3145 RTV)
(h = ?)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

1.2(1)

optical coupling

Silicone grease (Dow Corning) (h = ?)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

0.02(1)

optical coupling

Silicone grease (Nusil S-7400) (h = 106 )

I

NAA

< 1

< 2

1.55(4)

optical coupling

Silicone oil (NE 588) (h = ?)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1.2

< 0.01

optical coupling

Silicone oil (Rhne Poulenc) (h = 6 105)

I

NAA

< 1

< 1.6

3.4(1)

optical coupling

Silver solder
(RAL: Ag(55)Cu(21)Zn(22)Sn(2))

E

GDMS

< 0.10

< 0.072

< 0.013

Rb 3.0 ppb; Lu < 4.9 ppb

SnCu

E

GDMS

< 5

< 1

0.26(3)

(2/05) Sn99%Cu1% lead free solder

Snowcal 20 (Croxton) (CaCO3)

R

AA

-

-

85

 

Snowcal 60 (Croxton)

R

AA

-

-

130

 

Solder (Farnell)

B

GES

0(10)(b)

-10(30)(e)

110(20)

 

Steel

E

GDMS

< 1

0.4

1.1

Lu < 0.2 ppb; Rb 35 ppb

Steel (hundred-year-old) (ex Cardiff gasworks)

E

GDMS

< 0.4

1.3

0.32

La 13 ppb; Rb 66 ppb

Steel (mild)

H

GES

< 60(c)

< 100(d)

 

137Cs < 2 kru; 60Co < 9 kru

Steel (mild, I-beam)

E

GDMS

0.45(0.04)

0.45(0.04)

< 0.01

(21/10/04) Possible support for DRIFT-II floor

Steel (scaffold)

H

GES

< 160(c)

< 150(d)

 

137Cs < 9 kru; 60Co < 20 kru

Steel (sheet)

H

GES

< 160(c)

< 150(d)

 

137Cs < 20 kru; 60Co < 20 kru

Steel (stainless 304, wire, 100mm dia)
(California Fine Wire Ltd)

E

GDMS

1.5(3)

5(1)

≤ 0.2

DRIFT-I grid wire

Steel (stainless 304)

E

GDMS

3.2(3)

3.6(4)

≤ 0.15

 

Steel (stainless 304L) (Elantic, UK)

E

GDMS

0.6(1)

0.7(1)

≤ 0.26

Tested as possible DRIFT-II vessel

Steel (stainless 316L, block) (Italy)

E

GDMS

3.6(4)
1.4(1)

1.2(1)
0.8(1)

≤ 0.06
≤ 0.3

(10/03) DRIFT-I vessel (manf: Portabello)
(04/04) repeat

Steel (stainless 316L) (Elantic, UK)

E

GDMS

< 0.5

2.0(2)

≤ 0.32

Tested as possible DRIFT-II vessel

Steel (stainless 316L)

E

GDMS

1.3(1)

1.7(2)

≤ 0.10

 

Steel (stainless, body) (USA)

E

GDMS

0.81(8)

0.51(5)

< 0.05

(14/10/04) DRIFT-II vessel, main body (Manufacturer: Royal Welding)

Steel (stainless, cryogenic)

E

GDMS

3

2

0.10

Lu < 0.5 ppb; Rb < 0.5 ppm

Steel (stainless, frame) (USA)

E

GDMS

0.37(4)

1.6(2)

< 0.05

(14/10/04) DRIFT-II vessel, frame (Manufacturer: Royal Welding)

Steel (stainless, hinge) (USA)

E

GDMS

5.7(6)

3.9(4)

≤ 0.15

(14/10/04) DRIFT-II vessel, hinge (Manufacturer: Royal Welding)

Steel (stainless, mesh)

L

GDMS

< 4

< 4

0.195(7)

 

Steel (stainless, rod) (USA)

E

GDMS

0.24(2)

0.24(2)

< 0.05

(14/10/04) DRIFT-II vessel, welding rod (Manufacturer: Royal Welding)

Steel (stainless, wire, 20mm dia)

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

≤ 0.4

 

Steel (stainless, wire, 100mm dia)

E

GDMS

< 0.5

< 0.5

≤ 0.05

 

Steel, stainless (USA)

H
H
E

ICPMS
ICPES
GDMS

< 2
-       
< 0.5

< 8
-          
3.0(3)

-       
6.2(1)
≤ 0.04

for ZEPLIN II grid wires

Steel, stainless (USA)

 
E
 

 
GDMS
 

3.4(3)
0.9(1)
4.2(4)

4.0(4)
0.6(1)
2.5(2)

≤ 0.31
≤ 0.21
≤ 0.23

ZEPLIN II vacuum jacket (samples from 3 different lifting lugs)

Sugar (W. Indies cane)

R

AA

-

-

13

 

Sulquisa (Tilcon) (Na2SO4)

R

AA

-

-

9

 

T

 

[Index]

Talc RB 143 (Tilcon) (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2)

S

?

-

-

80

350 mesh powder

Tensol perspex cement

I

NAA

< 1

< 1

< 0.04

in light-guides

Thermocouple connectors

B

GES

135(35)(b)

330(120)(e)

330(130)

in Xe system

Tl metal, 6N (BDH)

F

SSMS

< 30

< 30

0.3

 

TlBr (-?-)

L

GDMS

130(15)

800(90)

0.22(1)

 

TlBr, from 5N Tl (BDH)

F
R

SSMS
AA

< 30
-    

100
-    

3
0.12(12)

 
 

TlBr, from 6N Tl (BDH)

F
R

SSMS
AA

< 30
-       

< 30
-         

0.3
0.27(11)

 
 

TlI (Hilger)

R

AA

-

-

1.24(35)

 

Trucarb 299 (Tilcon)

R

AA

-

-

34

carboniferous limestone

U

 

[Index]

V

 

[Index]

Varnish (GE)

B

GES

< 9(15)(b)

< 10(15)(e)

< 6(15)

includes container

W

 

[Index]

W(72)Cu(28) alloy

E

GDMS

130(13)

0.7(1)

2.8(3)

possible high-strength alloy for ZEPLIN vessels

Water (Boulby tank)

H
H

ICPMS
ICPES

4 10-4
-       

< 5 10-5
-         

-        
0.05

Feb 92

Water (Boulby tank)

N

?

-

7(2) 10-4

-

Nov 91

Water (Boulby tank)

R

AA

-

-

0.210(3)

~ 10 S; Feb 93

Water (Boulby tank)

R

AA

-

-

0.058(4)

~ 2 S; Feb/Mar 93

Water (Boulby tank)

R

AA

-

-

0.027(3)

1.1 S; Mar 93

Water (Boulby tank)

R

AA

-

-

0.012(?)

1.3 S; Apr 93

Water (Boulby tank)

I

NAA

< 0.01

< 0.01

0.0160(5)

1.4 S; May 93

Water, distilled (Analar)

R

AA

-

-

0.011(3)

 

Water, distilled (Analar)

I

NAA

< 0.008

< 0.009

0.0084(2)

 

Water, distilled (Analar), contaminated

R

AA

-

-

2.00(3)

one (unwashed) hand immersed 60s in 1 scriptl

Water (Fisons demin)

H
H

ICPMS
ICPES

4 10-4
-       

10-4
-       

-        
1.4 10-4

 

Water (`blind' sensitivity test: 75% Analar, 25% Feb 93 tank water)

R

AA

-       

-       

0.065(3)

expect 0.062(2)

Water (RAL demin)

R
I
H
H

AA
NAA
ICPES
ICPMS

-       
< 0.2
-       
< 10-4

-       
< 0.1
-       
< 10-4

< 0.1
0.017
0.003(1)
-        




Cd, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm all below 10 ppt

WIPP cavern wall

B

GES

440(80)

970(260)

4870(60)

 

Wollastonite (Tilcon) (CaSiO4)

S

?

-       

-       

830

 

Wood (Boulby floor supports)

H

GES

< 400(b)

< 250(d)

1000(600)

137Cs 170(50) kru; 60Co < 50 kru

Wood (DRIFT-II; Boulby floor supports)

E

ICPMS
ICPES

4.2(8)
-       

3.8(8)
-       

-       
29(6)

DRIFT-II wooden beam supports for floor pallet

Wood (RAL; Boulby floor)

H

GES

< 60(b)

< 100(d)

< 1000

137Cs < 350 kru; 60Co < 180 kru

X-Z

 

[Index]

ZnWO4 (-?-)

L

GDMS

< 3

< 2

< 0.05

 

 

Notes:

(a):

K extraction by H2O - may be incomplete (where both acid and H2O extraction have been tried, K levels with acid are typically twice those with H2O).

(b):

from 214Bi g count, U chain assumed in equilibrium (JCB uses other lines to enhance statistics).

(c):

from 226Ra g count, U chain assumed in equilibrium.

(d):

from 228Ac g count, Th chain assumed in equilibrium.

(e):

from 208Tl g count, Th chain assumed in equilibrium (JCB uses other lines to enhance statistics).

(f):

a-count < 0.01 cph cm-2 (Ritala, Johnson Matthey, USA)

(g):

Harwell tests on CaF2 are exploratory. HCl leach gives minimal contamination, but may be incomplete; complete solution (in boric acid) gives poor sensitivity.

(h):

Harwell now dissolve CaF2 in nitric/perchloric acid mixture, with improved sensitivity.

(i):

ICI now acknowledge that the K positives reported in Issue 1 of this document were in fact largely due to Ca. It is difficult to separate the (weak) Ca line from the K line, so I take the previously reported values as upper limits.

(k):

Uranide removal as part of KARMEN programme.

(m):

Measurements reported as Bq/kg or (raw) counts/1000s/100g. My conversions to ppm (mg/g) or ppb (ng/g), with certain assumptions - details here (Excel).

(n):

Manufacturer's reported Bq/kg convert to: 80 ppb U, 74 ppb Th, 100 ppm K. Manufacturer claims "16 ppb 40K", which corresponds to 140 ppm K.

(o):

Manufacturer's itemized report here (Excel).

(p):

Two runs: 0.87, 0.74 for U; 0.14 Th for both.

 

Other remarks:

Internal Use Only!